Hamed Felegari is a pharmaceutical student from School of Pharmacy Hamedan University of Medical Sciences-Iran. Member of Student Research Committie, University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran.
Paraquat is one of the most common herbicides used in agriculture, which can cause very severe toxicity in humans and animals. In this study, we investigated the effect of N-acetyl cysteine and vitamin D on the oxidative toxicity of kidney tissue in sub-acute toxicity with paraquat. 36 male albino rat 8 weeks were randomly divided into 6 groups (n=6). Group 1 or control: Control group (received plate and water), group 2 and 3: Control received with vitamin D dosage in μg/kg/day2 and N-acetyl cysteine 6.25 mg/kg/ day, group 4: Received paraquat 5 mg/kg/day, group 5 and 6: Poisoned with paraquat received vitamin D-treated dose of 2μg/kg/day and N-acetyl cysteine 6.25 mg/kg/day, this treatment continued for 7 days. At the end of the study, serum and kidney tissue collected. Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC), lipid Peroxidation (LPO), Total Thiol Groups (TTG), urea and creatinine, vitamin D levels in kidney tissue by spectrophotometric and ELISA methods were evaluated. A kidney histo-pathologic evaluation was performed. The value of p<0.05 was considered significant. In paraquat-poisoned groups lipid peroxidation, urea and creatinine were increased and total antioxidant capacity, thiol groups and vitamin D levels decreased significantly (p<0.05). In treated groups, there was a significant decrease in kidney injury, lipid peroxidation, urea and creatinine in comparison with paraquat group and total antioxidant capacity, thiol groups, vitamin D levels significantly increased (P<0.05). Vitamin D decreased oxidative stress and tissue damage in the kidney caused by paraquat poisoning.
Lavinia Berta is working as a Lecturer at General and Inorganic Chemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Tirgu Mures, Romania. Her expertise is in the field of inorganic chemistry-synthesis, identification and characterization of poly-oxometallic compounds (UV-VIS, FT-IR, TGA and ICP). She has two national grants as Principal Investigator. She has many articles published and has participated in many national and international conferences.
Statement of the Problem: Polyoxotungstate are inorganic compounds with a broad range of pharmacological properties (antiviral, antibacterial, anti-tumoral activities). The purpose of this study was to synthesize Na19 [NaAs4 W40O140Pd4 2+] *aq (As4 W40Pd), a new Pd2+ complex of Na27 [NaAs4W40O140] aq (As4W40), a polyoxotungstate cryptand and to assess the antimicrobial activity. Method: The As4 W40 cryptand was synthesized following methods already described in the literature. The complex was obtained by adding PdCl2 solution to As4W40 solution at pH 4, maintaining temperature between 70-80 ºC. After purification the complex was analyzed by spectrometric methods, TGA, conductometry, X-ray diffractometry. The biological activity was studied in vitro on Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial strains by serial dilution method, with identification of Minimum Inhibitory (MIC) and Bactericidal Concentrations (MBC). Findings: The As4W40Pd complex structure is a Leyrie assembly which consist of 4 identical tri lacunar Keggin anion structures ([AsW9 O33]9-) joined together by 4 WO6 octahedra in a ring-like form with high symmetry. The Pd2+ cation is central coordinated inside the structure, in active positions formed in the lacunar places with high electron density. In case of Pd complex a new vibration was noticed at 544 cm-1 corresponding to Pd-O bond. The results obtained by serial dilution method are the following (MIC, MBC=mg/ml): As4W40Pd for Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, ATCC 44003, Gram positive) MIC=1.48, MBC=1.48; for Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853, Gram negative) MIC=23.69, MBC=23.69; As4 W40-for MRSA MIC=1.00, MBC=1.00 for P. aeruginosa MIC=64.60, MBC=no effect. Conclusion: A new complex was synthesized Na19 [NaAs4 W40O140Pd4 2+]*34H2 O. Both compounds exhibit remarkable antibacterial activity on strains resistant to current therapeutics. The complex was more efficient than the cryptand. MRSA have proved to be more sensitive than P. aeruginosa, which developed resistance to the cryptand. This class of compounds presents biological properties that deserve to be exploited and optimized further more. References 1. Moghayedi M, Goharshadi E K, Ghazvini K, Ahmadzadeh H, Ludwig R, Namayandeh-Jorabchi M (2017) Improving antibacterial activity of phosphomolybdic acid using graphene. Materials Chemistry and Physics; 188: 58-67. 2. Qi W, Qin Y, Qi Y, Guo L, Li J (2015) In vitro antitumor activity of a keggin vanadium-substituted polyoxomolybdate and its ctDNA binding properties. J. Chem.; 2015: 1-6. 3. Grama L, Man A, Muntean DL, Gaz Florea SA, Boda F, Curticapean A (2014) Antibacterial Activity of Some Saturated Polyoxotungstates. Romanian Review of Laboratory Medicine; 22(1): 111-118. 4. Hosseini S M, Amini E, Tavassoti Kheiri M, Mehrbod P, Shahidi M, Zabihi E (2012) Anti-influenza Activity of a Novel Polyoxometalate Derivative (POM-4960). Int. J. Mol. Cell. Med.; 1(1): 21-29. 5. Zhang D, Zhang C, Chen H, Ma P, Wang J, Niu J (2012) Syntheses, structures and properties of dimeric rare earth derivatives based on monovacant Keggin-type polyoxotungstates. Inorganica Chimica Acta; 391: 218-223.